He has the goal to bring spiritual freedom to his people. Follow the exciting action as he attempts to bring such to his people in Juda Arad, a land that has been under the domination of the Centurions for a great many years. When he fails, his family immigrates to a far distant island, West Reach, there to try to build a new life, renewing their goal to free all men. However, a new threat comes from the northern steppes, the Galt cavalrymen invade the countries of Tarra, wiping out the Centurion control over most all areas.
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Over a period of several years, these barbarian horsemen systematically loot all countries as they head for the greatest prize of all, Megalos itself. With the apparent death and resurrection of the Great Messiah, the ten disciples split into several groups and found the religion of Jehosanity, each with their own twists on the original preaching of Jes.
Unbeknown to all except Bethany, Jes, and the druwids, several alien creatures are actually controlling the minds and the history and development of all the people on the planet. In an attempt to eliminate the grey giants, Jes is killed and the grey aliens eventually come after Bethany, perceiving her as their last threat to their secrecy on Tarra.
Her relatively longer life is ended by an attack of these creatures. Thus, once more, she is forced to acquire a new body, to get back into the game of life. Struggling with this change of circumstances, she must continue her quest, to find and rescue Alabaster. When only fourteen, his family is wiped out by an attack from the south.
Fleeing with his sister, Fianna, they must elude the raiders and somehow survive. The plan: form a roving band of troubadours and travel the length and breadth of Tarra, searching for the druwid leader.
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Using this cover, the band of musicians slowly grows as they travel. Many wild adventures accompany their every move, including several encounters with the mysterious Grey Giants, and they begin to see just what the Grey Giants are actually doing to their society. With Alabaster rescued, the two devise a plan that may eliminate both the two strange species who have been controlling evolution on Tarra. Ket Elizabeth and Caitlyn take up married life as King and Queen. However, their kingdom has suffered greatly from last years devastating war.
It will take a massive rebuilding effort to secure their kingdom. However, their towns are now minus nearly all younger men, two towns prime for the taking. Surely another king will attack them and soon, looking for the spoils of war. Yazi and his Church of Jehosanity assumes even more control over Megalos and the Centurions. He takes the most feared assassin in all Megalos under his wing as his Security General. Worse still, the Guardians, as a movement are dying. Ket must find a solution and fast.
Megalos is plotting another campaign to retake their lost colonies of the Sea Princes, while the Galts of the Northern Steppes are slowly capturing all of the Greenway. In fact, it has become the artistic and Gnostic center on all Tarra. For a time, she is running two bodies at the same time! Ket barely recovers while at sea in his funeral boat, while she begins a new life as a new born baby girl. Yes, she gets very confused, but finally sorts it out. Ket dies not long after, while stealing the incriminating documents of Pope Yazi I.
Upheaval is the order of the day across all of Tarra, especially across the occupied Sea Prince Sectors. Within each sector, the people handle the suppression in different ways, each trying to throw off the yoke of the Holy Paladins from Megalos. The Pope and the Mano del Dio clamp down even harder, becoming utterly ruthless towards the women within these sectors. The Santi del Dio must now cope with the messes being forced onto the Sea Prince population.
Many people make their thrusts for power and control. The centuries old aberrations being inflicted upon women come to the forefront in this chilling tale of power and resolve. Yet, ever the Santi stand alone against those who would enslave. With the invention of the fast caravel, she embarks on an exploration of the entire world, becoming the first to sail around the world. They encounter many new civilizations that were totally unknown to the known world. However, always in mind is their mission to track down any surviving Grey Creatures or mantis monsters, who have been inflicting pain and aberrations upon the people of Tarra, and destroy them.
Shocking is an understatement for what they find in many of these new lands. The many surviving mantis creatures are still active, brutalizing women. One by one, the explorers rescue numerous people who are in dire need, taking them to the safety of the Santi fortresses and the rehabilitation facilities of the Laird Foundation. The Lord of the Rings, in evidence: the names of persons and places in this story were mainly composed on patterns deliberately modelled on those of Welsh closely similar but not identical. This element in the tale has given perhaps more pleasure to more readers than anything else in it.
Tolkien included neither any explicit religion nor cult in his work. Rather the themes, moral philosophy, and cosmology of The Lord of the Rings reflect his Catholic worldview. In one of his letters Tolkien states, "The Lord of the Rings is of course a fundamentally religious and Catholic work; unconsciously so at first, but consciously in the revision. That is why I have not put in, or have cut out, practically all references to anything like 'religion', to cults or practices, in the imaginary world. For the religious element is absorbed into the story and the symbolism.
Some locations and characters were inspired by Tolkien's childhood in Birmingham , where he first lived near Sarehole Mill , and later near Edgbaston Reservoir.
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This shows in such names as "Underhill", and the description of Saruman's industrialization of Isengard and The Shire. It has also been suggested that The Shire and its surroundings were based on the countryside around Stonyhurst College in Lancashire where Tolkien frequently stayed during the s. After Milton Waldman, his contact at Collins, expressed the belief that The Lord of the Rings itself "urgently wanted cutting", Tolkien eventually demanded that they publish the book in The Return of the King was especially delayed due to Tolkien revising the ending and preparing appendices some of which had to be left out because of space constraints.
Tolkien did not like the title The Return of the King , believing it gave away too much of the storyline, but deferred to his publisher's preference.
Tolkien was initially opposed to titles being given to each two-book volume, preferring instead the use of book titles: e. The Lord of the Rings : Vol. However these individual book titles were later scrapped, and after pressure from his publishers, Tolkien initially suggested the titles: Vol. Because the three-volume binding was so widely distributed, the work is often referred to as the Lord of the Rings " trilogy ".
In a letter to the poet W. Auden who famously reviewed the final volume in  , Tolkien himself made use of the term "trilogy" for the work  though he did at other times consider this incorrect, as it was written and conceived as a single book. The books were published under a profit-sharing arrangement, whereby Tolkien would not receive an advance or royalties until the books had broken even, after which he would take a large share of the profits.
In the early s Donald A. Wollheim , science fiction editor of the paperback publisher Ace Books , claimed that The Lord of the Rings was not protected in the United States under American copyright law because Houghton Mifflin, the US hardcover publisher, had neglected to copyright the work in the United States. Tolkien took issue with this and quickly notified his fans of this objection. Authorized editions followed from Ballantine Books and Houghton Mifflin to tremendous commercial success. Tolkien undertook various textual revisions to produce a version of the book that would be published with his consent and establish an unquestioned US copyright.
On September 4, , the novel debuted on New York Times' Paperback Bestsellers list as number three, and was number one by December 4, a position it held for eight weeks. In , for the 50th Anniversary Edition, Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull, under supervision from Christopher Tolkien, studied and revised the text to eliminate as many errors and inconsistencies as possible, some of which had been introduced by well-meaning compositors of the first printing in , and never been corrected.
Further corrections were added to the 60th Anniversary Edition in Several editions, notably the 50th Anniversary Edition, combine all three books into one volume, with the result that pagination varies widely over the various editions. From to Christopher Tolkien published the surviving drafts of The Lord of The Rings , chronicling and illuminating with commentary the stages of the text's development, in volumes 6—9 of his History of Middle-earth series.
The novel has been translated, with various degrees of success, into at least 56 languages. Because The Lord of the Rings purports to be a translation of the fictitious Red Book of Westmarch , with the English language representing the Westron of the "original", Tolkien suggested that translators attempt to capture the interplay between English and the invented nomenclature of the English work, and gave several examples along with general guidance.
While early reviews for The Lord of the Rings were mixed, reviews in various media have been, on the whole, highly positive and acknowledge Tolkien's literary achievement as a significant one. The initial review in the Sunday Telegraph described it as "among the greatest works of imaginative fiction of the twentieth century". Auden , an admirer of Tolkien's writings, regarded The Lord of the Rings as a "masterpiece", further stating that in some cases it outdid the achievement of John Milton 's Paradise Lost.
New York Times reviewer Judith Shulevitz criticized the "pedantry" of Tolkien's literary style, saying that he "formulated a high-minded belief in the importance of his mission as a literary preservationist, which turns out to be death to literature itself". Both the characters and the work itself are, according to Jenkyns, "anemic, and lacking in fibre".
Hugo Dyson complained loudly at its readings. Lewis , had very different feelings, writing, "here are beauties which pierce like swords or burn like cold iron. Here is a book which will break your heart.
Despite its numerous detractors, the publication of the Ace Books and Ballantine paperbacks helped The Lord of the Rings become immensely popular in the United States in the s. The book has remained so ever since, ranking as one of the most popular works of fiction of the twentieth century, judged by both sales and reader surveys. In similar polls both Germany  and Australia  also found The Lord of the Rings to be their favourite book. In a poll of Amazon. Although The Lord of the Rings was published in the s, Tolkien insisted that the One Ring was not an allegory for the atomic bomb ,  nor were his works a strict allegory of any kind, but were open to interpretation as the reader saw fit.
A few critics have found what they consider racial elements in the story, which are generally based upon their views of how Tolkien's imagery depicts good and evil, characters' race e. The opinions that pit races against each other most likely reflect Tolkien's criticism of war rather than a racist perspective.
In The Two Towers , the character Samwise sees a fallen foe, a man of color, and considers the humanity of this fallen Southron. Critics have also seen social class rather than race as being the determining factor in the portrayal of good and evil. The book has been read as fitting the model of Joseph Campbell 's " monomyth ". The book has been adapted for radio four times. In the s radio station WBAI produced a short radio adaptation.
For this purpose it is generally edited into 13 one-hour episodes. Following J. Tolkien 's sale of the film rights for The Lord of the Rings to United Artists in , rock band The Beatles considered a corresponding film project and approached Stanley Kubrick as a potential director; however, Kubrick turned down the offer, explaining to John Lennon that he thought the novel could not be adapted into a film due to its immensity.
After the script was written, which included many changes to the story and the characters, the production company scrapped the project, thinking it too expensive and too risky.